Sublimation (phase transition)
This page is about the meaning, origin and characteristic of the symbol, emblem, seal, sign, logo or flag: Sublimation (phase transition).
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid phase to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase.
At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. Note, however, that the pressure referred to here is the partial pressure of the substance, not the total (e.g., atmospheric) pressure of the entire system. So, all solids that possess an appreciable vapor pressure at a certain temperature usually can sublime in air (e.g., water ice just below 0°C). For some substances, such as carbon and arsenic, sublimation is much easier than evaporation from the melt, because the pressure of their triple point is very high, and it is difficult to obtain them as liquids.
Sublimation requires additional energy and is an endothermic change. The enthalpy of sublimation (also called heat of sublimation) can be calculated as the enthalpy of fusion plus the enthalpy of vaporization. The reverse process of sublimation is deposition. The formation of frost is an example of meteorological deposition.
Note: in alchemy, sublimation as a process automatically includes the chemical's deposition onto a portion at the top of the vessel, called a sublimate, or "flowers" because of how it often blooms into crystals.
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