The national flag of Indonesia, which is known as Sang Saka Merah-Putih ("The Sacred Red-and-White") or Bendera Merah-Putih ("The Red-and-White Flag") or simply Merah-Putih ("The Red-and-White"), or sometimes referred to as Sang Dwiwarna ("The Bicolor") in Indonesian is based on the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire in East Java.
The flag itself was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Independence Day ceremony, on 17 August 1945. the Indonesian flag was hoisted at the time of reading the manuscript of the Proclamation by Ir. Soekarno (Bung Karno). Latief Hendraningrat, a PETA soldier, was assisted by Soehoed for the task. A young woman appeared from behind carrying a tray containing the Red and White flag (Sang Saka Merah Putih), which was sewn by Fatmawati (wife of President Bung Karno) a few days earlier. After the flag flew, the audience sang the song Indonesia Raya. Until now, the heirloom flag is still stored in the National Monument.The design of the flag has remained the same ever since.
The design of the flag is simple with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. The flag is similar to the flag of Poland and flag of Singapore. The flag is identical to the flag of Hesse (a German state) and the flag of Monaco, excluding the ratio. Red represents courage, while white represents purity of intent.