A Latin cross with two beams instead of one is known as the cross of Lorraine, the patriarchal cross, the archepiscopal cross. This sign often appears in heraldic contexts, sometimes in the form , but more often as . It denotes a cardinal's or archbishops rank.
Lothringen, or Lorraine, is a province on the border between France and Germany. During the Middle Ages this province was a principality. In the crusade that culminated with the siege and eventual fall of Jerusalem in 1099, the victory was dedicated to the duke of Lorraine. This sign is also the cross of the Greek Orthodox Church. It was used in for instance Belorus in the Middle Ages, and is still common there.
In alchemy has been used to denote white lead, which is a name for several poisonous white pigments containing lead.
In 1940, it was taken as the symbol representing the French resistance movement against Germany, and in 1963 this cross sign was used as a symbol for the exiled Cubans and their (unsuccessful) attempt to invade Cuba and conquer Fidel Castro's forces.
Most recently the sign has become the international symbol for the battle against tuberculosis.