An open cross within a
closed one is a typical structure in decorative arts in Greece and the
Near East about 1000 B.C. Both in the West, the East and pre-Columbian
America the cross seems to have been related to the weather, the four
winds that brought rain, the four points of the compass.
Thereby the equal armed cross became associated with the ground, the
fields, and the earth.
Via the weather, the cross is associated with the sun and often appears together with the sun sign, as for instance in the Indian ideogram and the Peruvian sun cross from pre-Columbian times. The cross was also an attribute of the Greek sun god Apollo hundreds of years before the Christian era.
See , the restoration cross found in fifteenth century heraldry, for a possible remainder of the ancient relationship between and .